Murugan (Sanskrit: स्कन्द Skanda) and Murugan (Tamil: முருகன் Murukan) is a Hindu god. Other common names are Karttikeya, Subrahmanya and Kumara. According to Hindu mythology Skanda is the son of Shiva. Under the name Murugan he belongs among the Tamil Hindus of the most popular deities. Historically, the Murugan of Tamil Hinduism has arisen through the merger of a separate Tamil originally God with the God Skanda the pan-Hindu mythology. In the religious life of northern India Skanda plays only a subordinate role today.
murugan (स्कन्द Skanda) is the most common name of the deity in the whole Indian tradition. He comes from the Sanskrit and is from the verb root skand derived either “jump” (within the meaning of “incurred”) or “spill” (especially seeds) can mean. In the first case, the name would be called “the to interpret attacker “and would refer to Skanda character as god of war, in the second case it would be an indication of the birth myth arose after the Skanda from the spilled semen of Shiva. In addition, the god among many other name is known. The most common are Karttikeya or Kartikeya (कार्त्तिकेय Karttikeya “son of Krittikas (Pleiades)”), Subrahmanya (सुब्रह्मण्य Subrahmanya “good to the Brahmins”) and Kumara (कुमार Kumāra “the youth”).
The Tamils of name Murugan (is முருகன் Murukan) by far the most common. He is from the Tamil -word muruku derived for “tenderness youthfulness”. In addition, be in the Tamil area tamilisierte forms of Sanskrit names like Kandan (கந்தன் KANTAN) Karttikeyan (கார்த்திகேயன் Kārttikēyaṉ) Subramanyan (சுப்பிரமணியன் Cuppiramaṇiyaṉ) or Kumaran ( குமரன் Kumaran) used.
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In its most common form of presentation is Skanda / Muruga in human form (anthropomorphic shown) and two arms. He usually appears in youthful shape. As a rule, he has his right hand to gesture of fearlessness (abhayamudra applicable). Skanda attribute is a lance resting on his right shoulder. As Mount (Vahana) serves him a peacock. Sometimes he carries a banner, on which a valve is ready. Often he appears against the background of the Tamil Om ampersand, which applies in addition to the lance as a symbol of God. On the forehead and lance Skanda often find three horizontal stripes as shivaitisches champagne mark (tilaka).
Sometimes Skanda also appears along with his two wives and Devasena Valli. In this case, Valli is always on his right and to his left Devasena. Frequently Skanda is depicted riding with six heads and twelve arms on a peacock. In this aspect, he named Shanmukha (Sanskrit: षण्मुख Ṣaṇmukha) or Arumugan (Tamil: அறுமுகன் Aṟumukaṉ), “the six-member”. Other modes of representation relating to certain aspects of the mythology Skanda: As Dandayudhapani (Sanskrit: दण्डायुधपाणि Daṇḍāyudhapāṇi “mace-bearers”) of God appears as a youthful ascetic with Stock, loincloth and a shaved head.
In representations of the divine family of Lord Siva, Skanda often appear as a toddler together also the childlike shown Ganesha in the bosom of his parents Shiva and Parvati. In modern depictions lacking, especially in North India, Skanda but often. On the other hand is in South India since the Chola -Epoche (9th to 13th century), the representation of Shiva as Somaskanda (“with Uma (Parvati) and Skanda,” but without Ganesha) popular.
Sculpture Skanda, Gupta period, 6th century., Madhya Pradesh
In the historical development Skanda / Murugans two separate strands can be identified: The God Skanda the Sanskrit tradition and the God Murugan in the Tamil tradition seem to be originally been independent. During the Skanda cult in northern India from the middle of the 1st millennium loses importance, merges the Tamil god Murugan at the same time with the deity Skanda and enjoys great popularity in the south.
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Murugan in the Sanskrit tradition
In the Sanskrit literature is scattered references Chr visit Skanda already middle of the 1st millennium BC.. In the Upanishads (Chandogya Upanishad) and Aranyakas (Taittiriya Aranyaka). To greater prominence served Skanda around the turn of an era in the two epics Mahabharata and Ramayana. Here you will find detailed descriptions of the mythology Skanda, but partially different from the later versions. So Skanda still appears as the son of the fire god Agni. The famous Sanskrit poet Kalidasa, who probably n 400. BC lived., Wrote the literary epic Kumarasambhava (“the birth of Kumara”). is further elaborated the Skanda mythology in the Puranas, the main genre of mythological literature of Hinduism , One of the 18 main Puranas entitled Skandapurana and contains other material, a detailed description of the deeds Skanda.
Historically, it can be shown that the Skanda cult n in the first centuries. Chr. By various north Indian dynasties was maintained. Coins depicting Skanda were among the Kushan, Shaka and Yaudheya coined. At the time of the Gupta Empire (4th-6th. Century) are hints to a distinct Skanda cult not only in coinage but also the name of Gupta rulers as Kumaragupta or Skandagupta. appears after the Gupta period Skanda importance to have declined in North India.
Murugan in Tamil tradition
The earliest tangible evidence of the god Murugan in Tamil tradition appear in the Sangam poetry, the oldest layer of Tamil literature. These texts probably originated between the 1st and 6th century. Chr. And reflect a state resists, which is still largely free from the influence of Sanskrit culture. Despite its secular nature (love and heroic poetry) the Sangam literature also includes references to deities: At the poetic conventions of Sangam-love poetry, the concept of part “five landscapes”, representing a particular emotional state, respectively. Each landscape are associated with their own characteristics, such as certain plant and animal species and also each have their own deity. Here Murugan is the god of the mountain landscape (Kurinchi), which represents the union of lovers. Murugan, surnamed often Sey or Seyon bears (“the Red”), appears as mountaineers and hunters, and through feed Animal sacrifice is venerated. He carries a spear with him associated animals peacock, cock and elephant. He used a special priest (Velan, later an epithet for the god himself), one trance dance lists. Murugan is a protector who fights against malicious forces and fear sells. But it can also obsession cause.
From the God of the hill tribes, as he appears in the earliest layer of Sangam literature, Murugan seems to have changed gradually to a war god who was also worshiped by the kings of the city states. At the same time he began in the mid-1 . millennium with the increasing influence of the Brahminical culture merge with the Sanskrit Skanda. In the two texts Paripadal and Tirumurugatruppadai conventionally expected to Sangam corpus, but clearly more recent, are subjects appear from the Skanda mythology, as it is described in the Sanskrit epics. The Tirumurugatrupadai (“Guide to God Murugan “), which is attributed to the poet Nakkirar and probably arose in the 6th century, is on the historical development of Murugan cult of great significance, is but the first devotional poetry in Tamil literature. Thus, it marks the transition from the medieval literature alttamilischen Bhakti gasket.